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Pennsylvania Bittercress (Cardamine pensylvanica)

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Cardamine Pensylvanica, or more commonly know as Pennsylvania Bittercress, is a forb/herb (a forb/herb is a non-woody plant that is not a grass) with green foliage and white flowers of the genus Cardamine. It has a rapid growth rate and a height of 1.5 feet at maturity. Its duration is annual which means it grows for one season only. It's active growth period is spring, blooms during early spring, is tolerant of shade and is routinely available commercially. Cardamine Pensylvanica or Pennsylvania Bittercress's floral region is North America US Lower 48 and Alaska, specifically in the states of Alaska, Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

  • Category: Dicot
  • Genus: Cardamine
  • Family: Brassicaceae
  • Order: Capparales
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Division: Magnoliophyta
  • Duration: Annual Biennial Perennial
  • Growth Habit: Forb/herb
  • Native Status: L48 (N) AK (N) CAN (N) SPM (N)
  • National Wetland Indicator Status: FAC OBL
  • Regional Wetland Indicator Status: 1(OBL) 2(FACW+) 3(FACW+) 4(OBL) 5(OBL) 6(FACW) 8(OBL) 9(FACW) 0(FACW) A(OBL) C(FAC)
  • Active Growth Period: Spring
  • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow
  • Allelopath: No
  • Bloat: None
  • C:N Ratio: Low
  • Coppice Potential: No
  • Fall Conspicuous: No
  • Fire Resistance: No
  • Flower Color: White
  • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
  • Foliage Color: Green
  • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous
  • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous
  • Foliage Texture: Fine
  • Fruit/Seed Color: Black
  • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No
  • Growth Form: Single Crown
  • Growth Rate: Rapid
  • Height Mature (feet): 1.5
  • Leaf Retention: No
  • Lifespan: Short
  • Low Growing Grass: No
  • Resprout Ability: No
  • Shape and Orientation: Erect
  • Toxicity: None
  • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes
  • Adapted to Fine Textured Soils: Yes
  • Adapted to Medium Textured Soils: Yes
  • Anaerobic Tolerance: Low
  • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
  • Cold Stratification Required: No
  • Drought Tolerance: None
  • Fertility Requirement: Medium
  • Fire Tolerance: None
  • Frost Free Days Minimum: 75
  • Hedge Tolerance: None
  • Moisture Use: Medium
  • pH (Minimum): 4.8
  • pH (Maximum): 6.8
  • Precipitation (Minimum): 32
  • Precipitation (Maximum): 55
  • Root Depth Minimum (inches): 7
  • Salinity Tolerance: None
  • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
  • Temperature Minimum (°F): -33
  • Bloom Period: Early Spring
  • Commercial Availability: No Known Source
  • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High
  • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring
  • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer
  • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
  • Propagated by Bare Root: No
  • Propagated by Bulbs: No
  • Propagated by Container: No
  • Propagated by Corms: No
  • Propagated by Cuttings: No
  • Propagated by Seed: Yes
  • Propagated by Sod: No
  • Propagated by Sprigs: No
  • Propagated by Tubers: No
  • Seed per Pound: 275000
  • Seed Spread Rate: Rapid
  • Seedling Vigor: High
  • Small Grain: No
  • Vegetative Spread Rate: None




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